Invasive Weed Glossary

Annual - Plants that complete their entire life-cycle, from seed to reproduction to death, within one year.

Apex - The tip of a plant root or shoot.

AqHerb01 - Water Quality Form to be completed by contractor and approved by the Environment Agency prior to herbicide use adjacent to a watercourse

Axil - The point on a plant leaf where the upper side of the petiole joins the stem.

Backfill - Material used to refill an excavated area.

Biennial - When the lifecycle of a plant, from germination, flowering to death, occurs in two years.

Blade - Either the whole plant leaf, excluding the petiole, or all parts of the leaf except the midrib.

Contaminated - To be impure or unclean by contact or mixture.

Cordate - Heart-shaped. Used to describe the shape of some plants’ leaves.

Crown - The base of an herbaceous plant where roots or rhizomes and aerial stems or resting buds meet. Also used to describe the top of a tree, including the branches and leaves.

Defra - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. DEFRA (or Defra) is the UK Government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. Concordats set out agreed frameworks for co-operation between it and the other, devolved, administrations of the UK.

Dioecious - Bearing male or female flowers on different plants.  This is a way of avoiding self-fertilisation (Japanese knotweed is an example of a dioecious plant species).

Dispersal - The movement of seeds away from the parent plant, e.g. by wind or birds.

Dormant - temporarily inactive: dormant buds; dormant seeds.

Ecology - The study of organisms in relation to their environment. 

EPA - Environmental Protection Act

Eradication - act of annihilating, destroying, or erasing; destruction; extermination

Evergreen - A plant (often tree) having green leaves throughout the year.

Flora - The total of plant species in a particular region, country, continent etc.

Foliage - The leaves of a tree or plant, or of many trees or plants.

Geotextile - Permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.

Germination - The first stage in the growth of a plant seed into a seedling. Germination begins with the seed absorbing water and ends with the production of the first true leaves.

Glabrous - Smooth, hairless. Often used to describe the surface of plant leaves and stems.

Habitat - The place or kind of place in which an organism, or community is found.

Herbicide - A chemical substance used to destroy or inhibit the growth of plants, especially weeds.

Hybrid - A plant resulting from the cross-fertilisation of two different species, subspecies or varieties.

Inflorescence - A plant shoot containing flowers and no leaves.

Integrated - To make into a whole by bringing all parts together; unify.

Internode - The space on a plant stem between two nodes.

Invasive - invading, or tending to invade; intrusive.

Lamina - The parts of a leaf on either side of the midrib.

Leaf - A plant organ whose function is photosynthesis and transpiration. Leaves are produced from buds on the stem.

Membrane -

Midrib - The central vein of a leaf.

Native - This refers to a plant that grows in the same habitat in which they originated. Plants can be native to a continent, state, or region.

Node - The point on a plant stem from which a leaf grows.

Opposite - The arrangement of two leaves which arise at the same node, on either side of a plant stem.

Ovule - The unfertilised seed of a plant.

Panicle - A branched flowerhead.

Peduncle - The stalk of a group of flowers.

Perennation - The survival of an individual plant, or of a dormant plant organ, over successive years or during unfavourable seasons.

Perennial - A plant lasting 3 or more seasonal cycles.

Pernicious -  Causing insidious harm or ruin; ruinous; injurious; hurtful.

Pesticide - A broad term that refers to any device, method, or chemical that kills plants or animals that compete for humanity's food supply or are otherwise undesirable.

Petal - An often brightly-coloured modified plant leaf, to attract pollinators.

Petiole - The stalk of a leaf, which joins it to a node on the stem.

pH - A measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a medium. Neutral is represented by 7; with lower figures indicating increased acidity and higher figures, increased alkalinity.

Photosynthesis - The manufacture, fuelled by solar energy, of complex organic molecules within the green tissues of plants, from the raw materials, carbon dioxide and water.

Regenerate - to renew or restore (a lost, removed, or injured part).

Rhizomatous - Bearing specialised stems, rooting and shooting from the nodes.

Rhizome - A stem that extends by growing underground, bearing buds that produce aerial shoots and adventitious roots.  This is a way of vegetative reproduction and perennation, whereby the extending rhizome eventually develops into groups of new plants.

Riparian - Of or inhabiting a riverbank.

Rosette - Leaves radiating from a single crown, at ground level.

Ruderal - Applied to plants which inhabit old fields, waysides or waste land.

Stamen - The male pollen-producing organ in a flower.

Stem - The main ascending axis of a plant; a stalk or trunk.

Stigma - The pollen accepting organ in a flower.  

Tubers - Swollen, fleshy, usually underground stems of a plant, such as the potato, bearing buds from which new plant shoots arise.

Vegetation - Any or all of the plants of an area or a region.

Vein - One of the many lines which can be seen on the surface of a leaf, marketing the position of the vascular bundle.

Weed - A plant considered undesirable, unattractive, or troublesome, especially one growing where it is not wanted.

WQM1 - Water Quality Management form used for application of herbicides adjacent to a watercourse prior to 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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